Research Reports - Does the presence of posttraumatic anosmia mean that you will be disinhibited?
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2013 Mar;35(3):298-308
Crowe SF, Crowe LM
Dispute has surrounded the issue of whether the relationship between anosmia and
executive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be artefactual due to
poor ascertainment. Three groups matched for age, gender, education, Full Scale
IQ, and the Wechsler Working Memory Index and showing adequate symptom validity
were compared: 30 anosmic TBIs (TBI-A) matched for posttraumatic amnesia (PTA)
and working memory functioning with 36 nonanosmic TBIs (TBI-NA) and 51 controls.
The groups performed the FAS test, the Animal Fluency test, the Stroop
Neurological Screening Test (SNST), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64 (WCST-64)
and the Trail Making Test (TMT-B) as well as tests of emotional functioning and
return to work outcome. After adjusting for the covariates (i.e., gender;
Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, WTAR; and years of education), a significant
effect was found for items successfully completed on the SNST, the FAS task, the
Animal Fluency task, and the WCST-64 categories completed. After adjusting for
the covariates, a significant difference was found for number of errors on the
SNST and for the number and type of errors on TMT-B. The two groups did not
differ in terms of their affective functioning (i.e., Beck Depression Inventory
or Beck Anxiety Inventory), or in terms of their outcome with regard to return to
work. The findings support the notion that the TBI-A group demonstrated
considerably weaker performance on executive tasks than did the nonanosmic TBIs.
These patients were not, however, more prone to an error-prone pattern of
performance, and, if anything, their executive deficit was more likely
attributable to a reduced productivity of response.