Research Reports - Sex-differences in symptoms, disability, and life satisfaction three years after mild traumatic brain injury

J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep 3;45(8):749-57

Styrke J, Sojka P, Björnstig U, Bylund PO, Stålnacke BM

Objective: To investigate sex differences in symptoms, structure of symptoms,
disability and life satisfaction 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury.
Secondary aims were to find risk factors for adverse outcome. Design:
Population-based cohort study. Patients: The cohort comprised 137,000 inhabitants
at risk in a defined population served by a single hospital in northern Sweden.
Patients attending the emergency department following a mild traumatic brain
injury in 2001 were included. Methods: Of 214 patients aged 18-64 years, 163
answered a questionnaire on symptoms, disability, and life-satisfaction 3 years
post-injury. The instruments were analysed with descriptive statistics. A
principal component analysis of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms
Questionnaire was conducted. Risk factors were identified using logistic
regression. Results: Post-concussion syndrome was found in 50% of the women and
30% of the men. Disability was found in 52% of the women and 37% of the men, and
57% of the women and 56% of the men were satisfied with their lives. For both
genders, high frequency of symptoms was a risk factor for disability and low life
satisfaction. Back pain was a risk factor for disability. Living alone was a risk
factor for low levels of life satisfaction. The principal component analysis
revealed differences between the sexes. Conclusion: There are sex differences in
outcome 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury. Women and men should be
analysed separately.

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