Research Reports - A comparison of adult outcomes for males compared to females following pediatric traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychology. 2015 Jul;29(4):501-8. doi: 10.1037/neu0000074. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Scott C(1), McKinlay A(1), McLellan T(1), Britt E(1), Grace R(1), MacFarlane
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and
internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and determine if these apply
equally to males and females.
METHOD: The association between adult psychosocial functioning and childhood TBI
for males and females was examined using groups with a history of childhood TBI
(mild or moderate/severe) or orthopedic injury (injury age, 1-17, assessed 18-31
at >5 years postinjury), including rates of depression and anxiety disorders,
substance abuse/dependence and offending behavior. Repeated-measures logistic
regression was used to determine if the rates of internalizing and externalizing
problem behaviors varied by group and sex.
RESULTS: Overall rates of problem behaviors were significantly greater for both
moderate/severe TBI (OR = 4.00) and mild TBI (OR = 3.60) groups compared with
orthopedic controls. Females were significantly more likely than males to report
a history of internalizing problems (OR = 2.22), whereas males were more likely
than females to report externalizing problems (OR = 2.10). The sex difference in
internalizing/externalizing problems was found consistently across TBI groups and
CONCLUSIONS: Childhood TBI is associated with psychosocial problems in adulthood,
regardless of injury severity. How deficits are expressed differs between the
sexes, with important implications for interventions strategies. (PsycINFO