Research Reports - Life after traumatic brain injury

Behav Neurol. 2015;2015:329241. doi: 10.1155/2015/329241. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Finnanger TG(1), Olsen A(2), Skandsen T(3), Lydersen S(4), Vik A(5), Evensen
KA(6), Catroppa C(7), Håberg AK(8), Andersson S(9), Indredavik MS(10).
Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for
long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort
study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems
in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic
characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow
Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration
of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological
variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported
function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were
assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15-65
years at time of injury) 2-5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched
control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional,
emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than
controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer
cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms
predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more
aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted
Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age,
education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome,
emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk

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