Research Reports - Association of traumatic brain injury in childhood and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Pediatr Res. 2016 May 11. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.85. [Epub ahead of print]

Yang LY(1), Huang CC(2,)(3), Chiu WT(4), Huang LT(5), Lo WC(6), Wang JY(1,)(7).

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI).
METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we included
10,416 newly diagnosed TBI children (aged ≤12 y) between 2001 and 2002 and 41,664
children without TBI, who were frequency matched by sex, age, and year of the
index medical service with each TBI child, as controls. Children who had been
diagnosed with ADHD prior to their medical service index were excluded. Each
individual was followed for 9 y to identify ADHD diagnosis. We also compared the
ADHD risk in children who were treated for fractures but not TBI as sensitivity
RESULTS: During the 9-y follow-up period, children with TBI had a higher ADHD
risk (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19,
1.45) than did those without TBI. Furthermore, children with mild and severe TBI
had higher AHRs for ADHD than did those without TBI (AHR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.10,
1.53; and AHR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.55). However, no significant association
was observed between fractures and ADHD.
CONCLUSION: TBI in childhood is associated with a greater likelihood of
developing ADHD. 

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