Research Reports - The association of cognitive reserve in chronic-phase functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2017 Jul 20. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000329. [Epub
ahead of print]

Leary JB(1), Kim GY, Bradley CL, Hussain UZ, Sacco M, Bernad M, Collins J,
Dsurney J, Chan L.

OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated
premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational
attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and
neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild (N = 58), moderate (N = 25), or severe (N = 17)
MAIN MEASURES: Cognitive reserve factors (estimated premorbid IQ, years of
education, and occupational attainment); neuropsychological test battery; Glasgow
Outcome Scale-Extended; Short Form-36 Health Survey.
ANALYSES: Spearman-Brown correlations, linear regression models, and analyses of
covariance were used to analyze the relation between CR factors and outcome
RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant relations between estimated premorbid IQ
and neuropsychological outcomes (P < .004): California Verbal Learning Test,
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition working memory, Booklet Category
Test, Trail Making Test B, and Grooved Pegboard Test. There was also a
significant correlation between estimated premorbid IQ and Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition processing speed. Years of education had
significant relations with California Verbal Learning Test and Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition working memory and processing speed scores.
There were significant differences between TBI severity groups and performance on
the Trail Making Test A, Grooved Pegboard Test, and Finger Tapping Test.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve factors may be associated with outcomes following
TBI. Additional alternatives to TBI severity are needed to help guide
rehabilitative planning postinjury. 

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