Research Reports - Psychosocial and executive function recovery trajectories one year after pediatric traumatic brain injury: The influence of age and injury severity

J Neurotrauma. 2017 Oct 16. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5265. [Epub ahead of print]

Keenan HT(1), Clark AE(1), Holubkov R(1), Cox CS(2), Ewing-Cobbs L(3).

Time since traumatic brain injury (TBI) and developmental stage at injury may
affect the trajectory of outcomes associated with adjustment and school success.
We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 519 children with either TBI or orthopedic
injury (OI) age 2.5-15 years to examine children's psychosocial and executive
function outcomes at 3- and 12-months post-injury. Outcome measures included the
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ),
and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) ratings. Controlling
for pre-injury ratings and using the OI group as the reference, children with
TBI, regardless of age or injury severity, had affective, anxiety, and
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) problems on the CBCL. Symptom
trajectories differed both by injury severity and age at injury. Children with
mild and complicated mild TBI had a decreasing anxiety trajectory, whereas
children with severe TBI had increasing symptoms. Children 6-11 years of age had
high ADHD and affective scores; however, the youngest children had increasing
symptoms over time. On the SDQ, peer relationships and prosocial behaviors were
not significantly affected by TBI but were associated with family environment.
Children with severe TBI had the worst executive function scores; however, mild
and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups had clinically important working memory
deficits. Hispanic ethnicity and strong social capital were positively associated
with multiple outcomes. Children's recovery trajectories differed by injury
severity, time since injury, and developmental stage when injured. Schools need
to reassess children's skills over time as new problems in behavior and learning
may emerge. 

« Back to Special Reports

Contact Us

We will gladly answer all or your questions about rehabilitation at Centre for Neuro Skills.


phone 1.800.922.4994
or Request a Callback

brain injury store

free brain injury newsletter

why choose cns for brain injury rehabilitation

brain injury newsletter

brain injury store