Research Reports - Clinical validation of S100B in the management of a mild traumatic brain injury

Gautier Allouchery
 / Farès Moustafa
 / Jean Roubin
 / Bruno Pereira
 / Jeannot Schmidt
 / Julien Raconnat
 / Daniel Pic
 / Vincent Sapin
 / Damien Bouvier

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Published Online: 2018-06-20
Background:
This study’s primary objective was to validate the routine use of S100B via a prospective study. The aim was a reduction of cranial computed tomography (CCT) scans by 30%. The secondary goal was to investigate the influence of age and associated risk factors on the reduction of CCT.

Methods:
S100B (sampling within 3 h postinjury) was used for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBIs) presenting a medium risk of complications and requiring a CCT scan. Patients with negative S100B (S100B−) were discharged without a CCT scan.

Results:
Of the 1449 patients included in this study, 468 (32.3%) had S100B− with a sensitivity of 96.4% (95% CI: 87.5%–99.6%), a specificity of 33.4% (95% CI: 31%–36%) and a negative predictive value of 99.6% (95% CI: 98.5%–99.9%). No significant difference in serum levels or the S100B+ rate was observed if patients had retrograde amnesia (0.16 μg/L; 63.8%), loss of consciousness (0.13; 63.6%) or antiplatelet therapy (0.20; 77.9%). Significant differences were found between the S100B concentrations and S100B positivity rates in patients >65 years old and all the groups with patients <55 years old (18–25, 26–35, 36–45 and 46–55). From 18 to 65 years old (n=874), the specificity is 39.3% (95% CI: 36%–42.6%) compared to 18.7% (95% CI: 15.3%–22.3%) for patients >65 years old (n=504).

Conclusions:
The clinical use of S100B in mTBI management reduces the use of CCTs by approximately one-third; furthermore, the percentage of CCTs reduction is influenced by the age of the patient.
 

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