Research Reports - Interleukin-10 is an independent biomarker of severe traumatic brain injury prognosis

Neuroimmunomodulation. 2012;19(6):377-85

Schneider Soares FM, Menezes de Souza N, Libório Schwarzbold M, Paim Diaz A, Costa Nunes J, Hohl A, Nunes Abreu da Silva P, Vieira J, Lisboa de Souza R, Moré, Bertotti M, Schoder Prediger RD, Neves Linhares M, Bafica A, Walz R

Background: Cytokines have been shown to be involved in traumatic brain injury
(TBI). We investigated the independent association between serum levels of IL-10
and TNF-α and hospital mortality of patients with severe TBI. Methods: Serum
IL-10 and TNF-α levels were determined after a median period (interquartile range
(IQ) 25-75) of 10 h (IQ 5-18) after severe TBI in 93 consecutive patients and in
randomly selected patients with mild (n = 18) and moderate (n = 16) TBI. In
patients with severe TBI, additional blood samples were analyzed 30 h (IQ 22-37)
and 68 h (IQ 55-78) after TBI. Age, gender, computed tomography findings, Glasgow
Coma Scale score (GCS) and pupil reactions at admission, associated trauma and
hospital mortality were collected. Results: Elevated serum levels of IL-10, but
not TNF-α, correlated significantly with GCS severity (R(2) coefficient, p <
0.0001) and were found to be associated with hospital mortality in patients with
severe TBI. Elevated IL-10 remained associated with mortality (p = 0.01) in a
subset of patients with isolated severe TBI (n = 74). Multiple logistic
regression analysis showed that higher IL-10 levels (>90 pg/ml) at 10 or 30 h
after TBI were 6 times (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)
1.2-25.1, p = 0.03) and 5 times (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.2-25.1, p = 0.03),
respectively, more frequently associated with hospital mortality than lower
levels (<50 pg/ml), independently of age, GCS as well as pupil reactions at
admission and associated trauma. Conclusions: Serum IL-10 levels may be a useful
marker for severe TBI prognosis.

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