Research Reports - Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury

J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep 3;45(8):765-70

Larsson J, Björkdahl A, Esbjörnsson E, Sunnerhagen KS

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social,
cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a
traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the
patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of
all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the
hospital (n = 129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean
age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European
Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register
Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were
sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the
EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA,
between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The
analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could
explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy
to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between
several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for
participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major

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