Research Reports - A comparison of adult outcomes for males compared to females following pediatric traumatic brain injury

Neuropsychology. 2014 Dec 15

Scott C, McKinlay A, McLellan T, Britt E, Grace R, MacFarlane M

nternalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and determine if these apply
equally to males and females. Method: The association between adult psychosocial
functioning and childhood TBI for males and females was examined using groups
with a history of childhood TBI (mild or moderate/severe) or orthopedic injury
(injury age, 1-17, assessed 18-31 at >5 years postinjury), including rates of
depression and anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence and offending
behavior. Repeated-measures logistic regression was used to determine if the
rates of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors varied by group and
sex. Results: Overall rates of problem behaviors were significantly greater for
both moderate/severe TBI (OR = 4.00) and mild TBI (OR = 3.60) groups compared
with orthopedic controls. Females were significantly more likely than males to
report a history of internalizing problems (OR = 2.22), whereas males were more
likely than females to report externalizing problems (OR = 2.10). The sex
difference in internalizing/externalizing problems was found consistently across
TBI groups and controls. Conclusions: Childhood TBI is associated with
psychosocial problems in adulthood, regardless of injury severity. How deficits
are expressed differs between the sexes, with important implications for
interventions strategies.

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