Research Reports - Insomnia symptoms and behavioural health symptoms in veterans 1 year after traumatic brain injury
Brain Inj. 2015 Aug 14:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Farrell-Carnahan L(1), Barnett S, Lamberty G, Hammond FM, Kretzmer TS, Franke LM,
Geiss M, Howe L, Nakase-Richardson R.
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia and behavioural health symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain
injury (TBI) were examined in a clinical sample representative of veterans who
received inpatient treatment for TBI-related issues within the Veterans Health
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional sub-study (n = 112) of the Polytrauma
Rehabilitation Centres' traumatic brain injury model system programme. Prevalence
estimates of insomnia, depression, general anxiety, nightmares, headache and
substance use, stratified by injury severity, were derived. Univariate logistic
regression was used to examine unadjusted effects for each behavioural health
problem and insomnia by injury severity.
RESULTS: Participants were primarily male, < 30 years old and high school
educated. Twenty-nine per cent met study criteria for insomnia; those with mild
TBI were significantly more likely to meet criteria (43%) than those with
moderate/severe TBI (22%), χ(2)(1, n = 112) = 5.088, p ≤ 0.05. Univariable
logistic regression analyses revealed depressive symptoms and general anxiety
were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms after TBI of any severity.
Headache and binge drinking were significantly inversely related to insomnia
symptoms after moderate/severe TBI, but not MTBI.
CONCLUSIONS: Veterans with history of TBI, of any severity, and current insomnia
symptoms may be at increased risk for depression and anxiety 1 year after TBI.