Research Reports - Ageing and traumatic brain injury: Age, decline in function and level of assistance over the first 10 years post-injury
Brain Inj. 2012 Aug 16
Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Hammond FM, Wright J, Novack TA, Englander J, Diaz-Arrastia
R, Dennison A, Sueno P
Objectives: To understand the course of changes in function and need for
assistance in the chronic stages of TBI; and to identify factors associated with
these changes. Design: Longitudinal review of participants in the TBI Model
Systems Database, who have been prospectively followed for at least 10 years.
Participants: Four hundred and seventy-eight individuals with TBI that occurred
between 25 October 1988 and 31 December 1998, enrolled in the TBI Model Systems
National Database, eligible for 10-year follow-up when data was extracted, with
completed data collection at either year 1 or 2 and year 10. Results: Significant
between age group differences were found for FIM toileting, bladder, bowel,
toilet transfers, locomotion, problem-solving and memory; SRS; DRS level of
functioning, employability and total; and GOS. With regard to functional
independence, there were significant differences by age category for all FIM
components except memory. Significant differences were noted for age category and
level of dependence as measured by the DRS (LOF 1.5-5) and GOS (GOS 2-4).
Supervision needs significantly increased as a function of age. Significant
differences were found for diminished function over time. Significant differences
were noted for residence at 10 years post-injury. Conclusions: For those
individuals that survive to 10 years post-TBI, age is a major factor in requiring
assistance of another person for supervision as well as assistance in basic
self-care, continence and mobility.