Research Reports - The influence of chronic cigarette smoking on neurocognitive recovery after mild traumatic brain injury

J Neurotrauma. 2013 Feb 19

Durazzo T, Abadjian L, Kinkaid A, Bilovsky-Muniz T, Boreta L, Gauger G

The majority of the approximately 1.7 million civilians in the United States
seeking emergency care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are classified as mild
(MTBI). Premorbid and comorbid conditions that commonly accompany MTBI may
influence neurocognitive and functional recovery. This study assessed the
influence of chronic smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption on neurocognitive
function following MTBI. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery was administered
to 25 non-smoking MTBI (nsMTBI), 19 smoking MTBI (sMTBI) 38 ± 22 days (assessment
point 1: AP1) and 230 ± 36 (assessment point 2: AP2) days after injury. Twenty
non-smoking light drinkers served as controls (CON). At AP1, nsMTBI and sMTBI
were inferior to CON on measures of auditory-verbal learning and memory; nsMTBI
performed more poorly than CON on processing speed and global neurocognition and
sMTBI performed worse than CON on working memory measures; nsMTBI were inferior
to sMTBI on visuospatial memory. Over the AP1-AP2 interval nsMTBI showed
significantly greater improvement than sMTBI on measures of processing speed,
visuospatial learning and memory, visuospatial skills and global neurocognition,
whereas sMTBI only showed significant improvement on executive skills. At AP2,
sMTBI remained inferior to CON on auditory-verbal learning and auditory-verbal
memory; there were no significant differences between nsMTBI and CON or among
nsMTBI and sMTBI on any domain at AP2. Hazardous alcohol consumption was not
significantly associated with change in any neurocognitive domain. For sMTBI,
over the AP1-AP2 interval, greater lifetime duration of smoking and pack-years
were related to significantly less improvement on multiple domains. Results
suggest consideration of the influence of chronic cigarette smoking is necessary
to understand the potential factors influencing neurocognitive recovery following
MTBI.

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