Research Reports - Smoking and outcome of traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2014;28(2):155-60

Ostberg A, Tenovuo O

Abstract Objective: There is evidence that the cholinergic system is involved in
cognitive sequels of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nicotinic acetylcholine
receptors (nAChRs) are known to have a major role in cognitive functions. Smokers
have up-regulation of these receptors. This study investigated whether smoking is
associated with the outcome from TBI. Methods: A specific questionnaire was sent,
after checking inclusion and exclusion criteria, to 1022 subjects with TBI who
had visited the neurological outpatient clinic of a university hospital during a
14-year period. Of these, 689 (67.4%) responded, forming the final study
population. Associations between demographic variables, injury severity and
outcome and smoking history were analysed using multivariate methods. Results:
Smokers were more often men (p < 0.001), younger at the time of the injury
(p = 0.008) and had less education (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis,
non-smokers did not differ for outcome of TBI by GOS-E (p = 0.08). Furthermore,
in multivariate analysis, no association was found between smoking history and
TBI outcome. Conclusions: This study does not suggest that smoking affects the
outcome of TBI.

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