Research Reports - Prevalence and assessment of traumatic brain injury in prison inmates

Brain Inj. 2016;30(10):1161-80. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2016.1191674. Epub 2016 Aug

Allely CS(1,)(2).

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of the present systematic PRISMA review were:
(1) to explore the range of prevalence of TBI in offenders and whether this is
higher than in a control sample; (2) to determine which screening measures are
available and evaluate the evidence on these; and, lastly, (3) to evaluate
whether prevalence of TBI is associated with increased prevalence of other health
conditions and/or offending behaviour.
METHODS: The present systematic PRISMA review explores the peer-reviewed
literature published since 2005 which has investigated TBI in incarcerated
populations using five databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and
Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO) in addition to separate searches
conducted on 'Google Scholar' using specific search criteria.
RESULTS: Seventeen studies were identified which explored the prevalence of TBI
in inmates. Only five of the seventeen studies which investigated prevalence of
TBI in offender populations looked at juvenile offending. Interestingly, only
seven of the 17 studies included both male and female samples (two of which did
not report findings separately for males and females). In terms of the
assessments used to investigate prevalence, three studies investigated the
prevalence of TBI using The Ohio State University (OSU) TBI Identification method
(OSU-TBI-ID). Nine studies used one or two questions in order to elicit
information on whether the offender had previously experienced a TBI. Only two
studies used the Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire (TBIQ). One study used the
Brain Injury Screening Index (BISI). One study investigated patients discharged
from non-federal South Carolina Emergency Departments or hospitals with a
TBI-related ICD-9-CM code. Lastly evidence of TBI checklist from medical record
(14 items) was used in one study.
CONCLUSIONS: In terms of the implication for further research and practice, the
studies identified in this review clearly emphasize the need to account for TBI
in managing care in offender populations, which may contribute to reduction in
offending behaviours. Additionally, there is a need for further research
investigating the clinical utility of screening tools for detecting TBI in
offender populations such as The Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire (TBIQ), The
Brain Injury Screening Index (BISI) and The Ohio State University (OSU-TBI-ID)
TBI Identification method. 

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