Research Reports - The relationship between family expressed emotion, perceived criticism and criticism sensitivity and psychiatric outcomes following traumatic brain injury

Psychiatry Res. 2016 Oct 17. pii: S0165-1781(15)30200-6. doi:
10.1016/j.psychres.2016.10.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Alway Y(1), Ponsford J(2), McKay A(3).

Family expressed emotion (EE) is a strong predictor of outcome in a range of
psychiatric and medical conditions. This study aimed to examine the relationship
between family EE-criticism, patient perceived criticism and criticism
sensitivity and psychiatric disorders following moderate to severe traumatic
brain injury (TBI). Participants were 60 patients with TBI and their family
members. Patients were assessed for psychiatric disorders using the Structured
Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and completed the Perceived Criticism
Measure (PCM) to determine levels of perceived criticism and criticism
sensitivity. Family members completed the Family Questionnaire (FQ) to assess
patient directed EE-criticism. Patients were reassessed approximately 12-months
post-baseline. After controlling for diagnostic status at baseline, high
criticism sensitivity at baseline was associated with greater probability of
psychiatric diagnosis at follow-up (odds ratio=3.99, 95% CI=1.15-13.71). Family
EE-criticism and perceived criticism were not predictive of patient diagnostic
status at follow-up, but patients with high EE-family members were more likely to
have a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. Findings suggest that
sensitivity to interpersonal criticism may have a role in the development and
course of psychiatric disorders following TBI. 

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