Research Reports - Individual- and population-level impacts of traumatic brain injury and maternal characteristics on subsequent offending behavior

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2017 Jul 20. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000326. [Epub
ahead of print]

Wand H(1), Simpson M, Malacova E, Schofield PW, Preen DB, Tate R, Butler T.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the individual- and population-level impact of a
combination of factors, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and certain
maternal characteristics, on subsequent criminal conviction.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective record linkage study involving a cohort
of 30 599 individuals born between 1980 and 1985, with ratio of 1 (with TBI): 3
(no TBI), matched by sex and the year of birth.
METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cox proportional hazard regression models and population
attributable risk percentages (PAR%) were used to assess the contribution of TBI
and other risk factors on subsequent criminal convictions.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Overall, individuals born to the teenaged mothers (<20
years) have significantly higher proportion of TBI than those born to older
mothers (35% vs 22%; P < .001). In the gender-specific analyses, a history of TBI
was associated with increased risk for criminal convictions (adjusted hazard
ratio [aHR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.60, and aHR: 1.45, 95%
CI: 1.22-1.73, for men and women, respectively). Maternal characteristics
(maternal age, single parent, multiparity) were identified as the greater
contributor to the criminal convictions (PAR%: 57% and 67% for men and women,
respectively). The combined impact of mental illness, maternal factors, and TBI
was estimated to be 67% and 74% (for men and women, respectively); with
nonoverlapping 95% CIs for PAR%, these factors were estimated to have had a
higher impact among females than among males.
CONCLUSION: More than half of the criminal convictions were associated with a
relatively small number of risk factors, including poor mental health, low
socioeconomic status, and TBI as well as certain maternal characteristics. 

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