Research Reports - Response inhibition in children with and without ADHD after traumatic brain injury

J Neuropsychol. 2013 Mar;7(1):1-11

Ornstein TJ, Max JE, Schachar R, Dennis M, Barnes M, Ewing-Cobbs L, Levin HS

Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain
injury (TBI) show deficient response inhibition. ADHD itself is a common
consequence of TBI, known as secondary ADHD (S-ADHD). Similarity in inhibitory
control in children with TBI, S-ADHD, and ADHD would implicate impaired
frontal-striatal systems; however, it is first necessary to delineate
similarities and differences in inhibitory control in these conditions. We
compared performance of children with ADHD and those with TBI without pre-injury
ADHD on a stop signal, response inhibition task. Participants were 274 children
aged 6-14 years. There were 92 children with ADHD, 103 children with TBI, and 79
typically developing children who served as controls. Among the TBI participants,
injury severity ranged from mild to severe. Children with ADHD and TBI showed
deficient inhibition. The deficit in children with ADHD was as great as or
greater than that in children with TBI, regardless of degree of TBI severity or
the presence of S-ADHD. The finding indicates that TBI results in deficient
inhibition regardless of the development of S-ADHD.

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