Research Reports - Factors predicting functional and cognitive recovery following severe traumatic, anoxic, and cerebrovascular brain damage

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2013 Mar;28(2):131-140

Smania N, Avesani R, Roncari L, Ianes P, Girardi P, Varalta V, Gambini MG, Fiaschi A, Gandolfi M

OBJECTIVES:: To compare demographic data, clinical data, and rate of functional
and cognitive recovery in patients with severe traumatic, cerebrovascular, or
anoxic acquired brain injury (ABI) and to identify factors predicting discharge
home. PARTICIPANTS:: Three hundred twenty-nine patients with severe ABI (192 with
traumatic, 104 with cerebrovascular, and 33 with anoxic brain injury). DESIGN::
Longitudinal prospective study of inpatients attending the intensive
Rehabilitation Department of the "Sacro Cuore" Don Calabria Hospital (Negrar,
Verona, Italy). MAIN MEASURES:: Etiology, sex, age, rehabilitation admission
interval, rehabilitation length of stay, discharge destination, Glasgow Coma
Scale, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Glasgow Outcome Scale, Levels of Cognitive
Functioning, and Functional Independence Measure. RESULTS:: Predominant etiology
was traumatic; male gender was prevalent in all the etiologic groups; patients
with traumatic brain injury were younger than the patients in the other groups
and had shorter rehabilitation admission interval, greater functional and
cognitive outcomes on all considered scales, and a higher frequency of returning
home. Patients with anoxic brain injury achieved the lowest grade of functional
and cognitive recovery. Age, etiology, and admission DRS score predicted return
home. CONCLUSIONS:: Patients with traumatic brain injury achieved greater
functional and cognitive improvements than patients with cerebrovascular and
anoxic ABI. Age, etiology, and admission DRS score can assist in predicting
discharge destination.

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