Research Reports - EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI?

NeuroRehabilitation. 2014 Sep 18

Munivenkatappa A(1), Rajeswaran J(2), Indira Devi B(3), Bennet N(2), Upadhyay N(3)

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback therapy (EEG-NFT) has several
potential beneficial effects in terms of improving cognition and
electrophysiological regulation among patients with brain injury. However, in
vivo structural and functional changes remain less explored.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to explore EEG-NFT induced in vivo
changes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.
METHOD: Two patients with mean age of 15 years with moderate head injury who had
more than seven post concussion symptoms and poor cognitive performances (<5
percentile) were subjected to 20 sessions of EEG-NFT. The neuropsychological test
scores, post concussion symptoms and MRI scan of the brain were recorded pre-post
RESULTS: During EEG-NFT the cognitive scores and concussion symptoms improved
significantly (p < 0.05). The EEG-NFT has shown significant increase in cortical
grey matter (GM) volumes (p < 0.0001) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of cortical
white matter (WM) tracts (p < 0.0001, voxel max 60 and above). There was a
significant decrease in global, local efficiency, cost and clustering coefficient
of functional connectivity (Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test p < 0.05). Interestingly
there was a significant increase in thalamo-cortical connection (increase FA
value) after EEG-NFT.
CONCLUSION: The EEG-NFT therapy has shown significant changes in structural and
functional connectivity among young moderately injured TBI patients.

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